Medical Apparatus: Imaging Guide to Orthopedic Devices

Orthopedic Devices

Joint Arthroplasty

Conservative Fracture Treatment

Internal Fixation - pins, wires, and screws

Internal Fixation - plates

Internal Fixation - nails and rods

Internal Fixation - bone grafts and bone substitutes

Carbon Fiber Implants

Fracture Fixation References

Joint Arthroplasty References




Fracture Fixation: References & Useful Links

Ruedi TP, Buckley RE, Moran CG, eds. AO principles of fracture management. Stuttgart, Germany: Thieme, 2007.

Benjamin BB, Lund PJ. Orthopedic devices. In: Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994; 348 –385.

Wiss DA, ed. Master techniques in orthopedic surgery. 3rd edition. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven, 2013.

Berquist TH, ed. Imaging atlas of orthopedic appliances and prostheses. New York, NY: Raven, 1995.

Freiberg AA, ed. The radiology of orthopedic implants: an atlas of techniques and assessment. St Louis, Mo: Mosby, 2001.

Hunter TB, Taljanovic M. Overview of medical devices. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2001; 30:94–139.

Althausen PL, Hak DJ. Lower extremity traction pins: indications, technique, and complications. Am J Orthop 2002; 31:43–47.

Parker MJ, Handoll HHG. Pre-operative traction for fractures of the proximal femur (Cochrane review). In: the Cochrane library, issue 4, 2002. Oxford: Update software.

Parker MJ, Stockton G. Internal fixation implants for intracapsular proximal femoral fractures in adults: Cochrane database of systemic reviewers (Cochrane review). In: the Cochrane library, issue 4, 2002. Oxford: Update software.

Stover M. Distal femoral fractures: current treatment, results and problems. Injury 2001; 32:SC3– SC13.

Craig NJ, Sivaji C, Maffulli N. Subtrochanteric fractures: a review of treatment options. Bull Hosp Joint Dis 2001; 60:35–46.

Jebson PJ, Adams BD. Wrist arthrodesis: review of current techniques. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2001; 9:53–60.

Hunter TB, Taljanovic MS. Glossary of medical devices and procedures: abbreviations, acronyms, and definitions. RadioGraphics 2003; 23:195– 213.

Herbert TJ, Fisher WE. Management of the fractured scaphoid using a new bone screw. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1984; 66:114 –123.

Manaster BJ, Remley K, Newman AP, Mann FA. Knee ligament reconstruction: plain film analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1988; 150:337–342.

Martin SD, Martin TL, Brown CH. Anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation. Orthop Clin North Am 2002; 33:685–696.

Resnick DL, Kang HS, Pretterklieber ML. Internal derangements of joints: emphasis on MR imaging. Second edition. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders, 2007.

Kurosaka M, Yoshiya S, Andrish JT. A biomechanical comparison of different surgical techniques of graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med 1987; 15: 225–229.

Beevers DJ. Metal vs bioabsorbable interference screws: initial fixation. Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2003; 217:59 –75.

Pena F, Grontvedt T, Brown GA, Aune Ak, Engebretsen L. Comparison of failure strength between metallic and absorbable interference screws: influence of insertion torque, tunnel-bone block gap, bone mineral density, and interference. Am J Sports Med 1996; 24:329 –334.

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Collinge CA, Sanders RW. Percutaneous plating in the lower extremity. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2000; 8:211–216.

Kregor PJ, Stannard J, Zlowodzki M, Cole PA, Alfonso J. Distal femoral fracture fixation utilizing the less invasive stabilization system (L.I.S.S.): the technique and early results. Injury 2001; 32: SC32–SC47.

Frigg R, Appenzeller A, Christensen R, Frenk A, Gilbert S, Schavan R. The development of the distal femur less invasive stabilization system (LISS). Injury 2001; 32:SC24 –SC31.

Kregor PJ. Distal femur fractures with complex articular involvement: management by articular exposure and submuscular fixation. Orthop Clin North Am 2002; 33:153–175, ix.

Ajmal M, O’Sullivan M, NcCabe J, Curtin W. Antegrade locked intramedullary nailing in humeral shaft fractures. Injury 2001; 32:692–694.

Oh CW, Park BC, Kim PT, Kyung HS, Kim SJ, Ihn JC. Retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing in children’s femoral fractures. Int Orthop 2002; 26:52–55.

Parikh SN. Bone graft substitutes in modern orthopedics. Orthopedics 2002; 25:1301–1311.

Larsson S, Bauer TW. Use of injectable calcium phosphate cement for fracture fixation: a review. Clin Orthop 2002; 395:23–32.

Petruskevicius J, Nielsen S, Kaalund S, Knudsen PR, Overgaard S. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study. Acta Orthop Scand 2002; 73:575–578.

Wilkins RM, Kelly CM, Giusti DE. Bioassayed demineralized bone matrix and calcium sulfate: use in bone-grafting procedures. Ann Chir Gynaecol 1999; 88:180 –185.

Robinson D, Alk D, Sandbank J, Farber R, Halperin N. Inflammatory reactions associated with a calcium sulfate bone substitute. Ann Transplant 1999; 4:91–97.

Ladd AL, Pliam NB. Use of bone graft substitutes in distal radius fractures. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1999; 7:279 –290.

Sherry E, Boeck H, Warnke PH. Percutaneous treatment of chronic MRSA osteomyelitis with a novel plant-derived antiseptic. BMC Surg 2001; 1:1–4.

Beaman FD, Bancroft LW, Peterson JJ, Kransdorf MJ, Menke DM, De Orio JK. Imaging characteristics of bone graft materials. RadioGrapics 2006 Mar-Apr 2006; 26(2):373-388.

Kurien T, Pearson RG, Scammell BE. Bone graft substitutes currently available in orthopaedic practice: the evidence for their use. Bone Joint J 2013 May; 95-B(5):583-587.

Bhatt RA, Rozental TD. Bone graft substitutes. Hand Clin 2012 Nov; 28(4):457-468.

Keramidas EG, Miller G. The Suzuki frame for complex intraarticular fractures of the thumb. Plast Reconstr Surg 2005; 116 (5): 1326-1331.

Porrino JA, Maloney E, Scherer K, Mulcahy H, Ha AS, Allan C. Fractures of the distal radius: postmanagement radiographic characterization. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 846-853.

Puddu G, Cipolla M, Cerullo G, Franco V, Gianni E. Osteotomies: the surgical treatment of the valgus knee. Sports Med Arthrosc 2007; 15 (1): 15-22.

Melville DM, Taljanovic MS, Scalcione LR, Eble JM, Gimber LH, DeSilva GL, Sheppard JE. Imaging and management of thumb carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis. Skeletal Radiol 2015; 44 (2): 165-177.

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Tiren D, van Bemmel AJ, Swank DJ, van der Linden FM. Hook plate fixation of acute displaced lateral clavicle fractures: mid-term results and brief literature overview. J Orhop Surg Res 2012 Jan 11; 7:2.

AAOS. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Locking plates for extremity fractures. A technology overview. PDF (2008) available at:

Hak DJ, Mauffrey C, Seligson D, Lindeque B. Use of carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implants in orthopedic surgery. Orthopedics 2014; 37 (12): 825-830.

Hillock R, Howard S. Historical review. Utility of carbon fiber implants in orthopedic surgery: literature review. JISRF Reconstructive Review 2014; 4 (1): 23-32.

Steinberg EL, Rath E, Shlaifer A, Chechik O, Maman E, Salai M. Carbon fiber reinforced PEEK Optima-a compositie material biomechanical properties and wear/debris characteristics of CF-PEEK composities for orthopedic trauma implants. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2013; 17: 221-228.

Taljanovic MS, Hunter TB, Miller MD, Sheppard JE. Gallery of Medical Devices. Part I: Orthopedic devices for the extremities and pelvis. RadioGraphics 2005; 25: 859-870. Permission granted for use of images in this article by Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

DePuy Synthes monograph DSEM-TRM-0615-0404-1_LR.pdf (Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA)).

Smith CR, Yoon JT, Long JR, Friedman MV, Hillen TJ, Stensby JD. The radiologist's primer to imaging the noncuff, nonlabral, postoperative shoulder. RadioGraphics 2018; 38:149–168.

Jesse MK, Hunt KJ, Strickland C. Postoperative imaging of the ankle. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018; 211:1-10.

Gaetke-Udager K, Yablon CM. Fractures around the shoulder: radiology update on surgical fixation techniques. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2019: 23: 99-108. DOI htttps://

Bartolotta RJ, Daniels SP, Verret CI, Fufa DT. Current fixation options for elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand fractures. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2019: 23: 109-125. DOI htttps://


Permission for use of images published in Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994 is granted by Tim B Hunter, MD copyright owner.



Useful Links:


American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

MRI Safety Information

Orthopedic Medical Device Manufacturers and Associated Useful Websites

Orthopedic Hardware Atlas

Ortho Atlas


United States Food and Drug Administration Medical Device Databases

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Tim Hunter

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