Medical Apparatus: Imaging Guide to Orthopedic Devices

Orthopedic Devices

Fracture Fixation


Joint Arthroplasty - Introduction

Joint Arthroplasty - Shoulder

Joint Arthroplasty - Elbow

Joint Arthroplasty - Wrist and Hand

Joint Arthroplasty - Hip

Joint Arthroplasty - Knee

Joint Arthroplasty - Ankle and Foot


Joint Arthroplasty References

Fracture Fixation References





Joint Arthroplasty - References & Useful Links

Berquist TH. Imaging atlas of orthopedic appliances and prostheses. New York, NY: Raven, 1995.

Freiberg AA. The radiology of orthopedic implants: an atlas of techniques and assessment. St Louis, Mo: Mosby, 2001.

Hunter TB, Taljanovic M. Overview of medical devices. Curr Probl Diag Radiol 2001; 4:89 –139.

Benjamin JB, Lund PJ. Orthopedic devices. In: Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994; 348 –385.

Hunter TB. Medical devices and foreign bodies: an introduction. RadioGraphics 2003; 23:193–194.

Barrack RL. Modularity of prosthetic implants. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1994; 2:16 –25.

Seeger LL, Farooki S, Yao L, Kabo JM, Eckardt JJ. Custom endoprosthesis for limb salvage: historical perspective and imaging evaluation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1998; 171:1525–1529.

Lazarus MD, Jensen KL, Southworth C, Matsen FA 3rd. The radiographic evaluation of keeled and pegged glenoid component insertion. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2002; 84:1174 –1182.

Boileau P, Avidor C, Krishnan SG, Walch G, Kempf JF, Mole D. Cemented polyethylene versus uncemented metal-backed glenoid components in total shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective, double- blind, randomized study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2002; 11:351–359.

Ferlic DC. Rheumatoid arthritis in the elbow. In: Green DP, Hotchkins RN, Pederson WC. Green’s operative hand surgery. 4th ed. Vol 2. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, 1999; 1740 –1758.

Inglis AE, Pellicci PM. Total elbow replacement. J Bone Joint Surg 1980; 62:1252–1258.

Jebson PJ, Adams BD. Wrist arthrodesis: review of current techniques. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2001; 9:953–960.

Carlson JR, Simons BP. Total wrist arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1998; 6:308 –315.

Berger RA, Beckenbaugh RD, Linscheid RL. Arthroplasty in the hand and wrist. In: Green DP, Hotchkins RN, Pederson WC. Green’s operative hand surgery. 4th ed. Vol 1. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, 1999; 147–191.

Divelbiss BJ, Sollerman C, Adams BD. Early results of the Universal total wrist arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis. J Hand Surg Am 2002; 27: 195–204.

Scheker LR, Babb BA, Killion PE. Distal ulnar prosthetic replacement. Orthopedic Clin North Am 2001; 32:1–10.

Hunter TB, Taljanovic MS. Glossary of medical devices and procedures: abbreviations, acronyms, and definitions. RadioGraphics 2003; 23:195– 213.

Johnstone BR. Proximal interphalangeal joint surface replacement arthroplasty. Hand Surg 2001; 6:1–11.

Fehring TK, Rosenberg AG. Primary total hip arthroplasty: indications and contraindications. In: Callaghan JJ, Rosenberg AG, Rubash HE, eds. The adult hip. Vol 2. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott- Raven, 1998; 893–898.

Galante JO. Overview of total hip arthroplasty. In: Callaghan JJ, Rosenberg AG, Rubash HE, eds. The adult hip. Vol 2. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott- Raven, 1998; 829 –837.

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Gebhard JS, Amstutz HC, Zinar DM, Dorey FJ. A comparison of total hip arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty for treatment of acute fracture of the femoral neck. Clin Orthop 1992; 282:123–131.

Jazrawi LM, Kummer FJ, DiCesare PE. Alternative bearing surfaces for total joint arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1988; 6:198 –203.

Manaster BJ. Total hip arthroplasty: radiographic evaluation. RadioGraphics 1996; 16:645–660.

Anthony PP, Gie GA, Howie CR, Ling RS. Localized endosteal bone lysis in relation to the femoral components of cemented total hip arthroplasties. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1990; 72:971–979.

Brady OH, Masri BA, Garbuz DS, Duncan CP. Use of reconstruction rings for the management of acetabular bone loss during revision hip surgery. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1999; 7:1–7.

Insall JN. Historical development, classification, and characteristics of knee prostheses, In: Insall JN, ed. Surgery of the knee. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, 1993; 677–717.

Deshmukh RV, Scott RD. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: long-term results. Clin Orthop 2001 392:272–278.

Freeman MA, Swanson SA, Todd RC. Total replacement of the knee using the Freeman-Swanson knee prosthesis. Clin Orthop 1973; 94:153–170.

Insall JN, Ranawat CS, Aglietti P, Shine J. A comparison of four models of total knee replacement prostheses. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1976; 58:754–765.

Easley ME, Vertullo CJ, Urban WC, Nunley JA. Total ankle arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2002; 10:157–167.

Pyevich MT, Saltzman CL, Callaghan JJ, Alvine FG. Total ankle arthroplasty: a unique design— two to twelve-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1998; 80:1410 –1420.

Saltzman CL, Alvine FG. The Agility total ankle replacement. AAOS Instr Course Lect 2002; 51: 129–133.

Gill LH. Principles of joint arthroplasty applied to the ankle. AAOS Instr Course Lect 2002; 51:117–128.

Coughlin MJ. The Scandinavian total ankle replacement prosthesis. AAOS Instr Course Lect 2002; 51:135–142.

Granberry WM, Noble PC, Bishop JO, Tullos HS. Use of a hinged silicone prosthesis for replacement arthroplasty of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1991; 73: 1453–1459.

Fritz J, Lurie B, Miller TT, Potter HG. MR imaging of hip arthroplasty implants. RadioGraphics 2014; 34: 1000-1001.

Dula AN, Virostko J, Shellock FG. Assessment of MRI issues at 7 T for 28 implants and other objects. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 202: 401-405.

Koff MF, Shah P, Potter HG. Clinical implementation of MRI of joint arthroplasty. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 154-161.

Han SC, Chung YE, Lee YH, Park KK, Kim MJ, Kim KW. Metal artifact reduction software used with abdominopelvic dual-energy CT of patients with metal hip prostheses: assessment of image quality and clinical feasibility. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 788-795.

Jansen J, Frokjaer J, Gerka O, Ludvigsen L, Torfing T. Evaluation of periprosthetic bone cysts in patients with a Scandinavian total ankle replacement: weight-bearing conventional digital radiographs versus weight-bearing mulitplanar reconstructed fluoroscopic imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 863-868.

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Roberts CC, Ekelund AL, Renfree KJ, Liu PT, Chew FS. Radiologic assessment of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. RadioGraphics 2007; 27: 223-235.

Calenoff L, Stromberg WB. Silicone rubber arthroplasties of the hand. Radiology 1973; 107: 29-34.

Petscavage JM, Ha AS, Chew FS. Radiologic review of total elbow, radial head, and capitellar resurfacing arthroplasty. Radiographics 2012; 32: 129-149.

Petscavage JM, Ha AS, Chew FS. Current concepts of shoulder arthroplasty for radiologists: part 1 - epidemiology, history, preoperative imaging, and hemiarthroplasty. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199: 757-767.

Ha AS, Petscavage JM, Chew FS. Current concepts of shoulder arthroplasty for radiologists: part 2 - anatomic and reverse total shoulder replacement and nonprosthetic resurfacing. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199: 768-776.

Kim SH, Wise BL, Zhang Y, Szabo RM. Increasing incidence of shoulder arthroplasty in the United States. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2011; 93(24): 2249-2254.

Burgess DL, McGrath MS, Bonutti PM, Marker DR, Delanois RE, Mont MA. Shoulder resurfacing. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2009; 91(5): 1228-1238.

Uribe JW, Botto-van Bemden A. Partial humeral head resurfacing for osteonecrosis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2009; 18(5): 711-716.

Levy O, Funk L, Sforza G, Copeland SA. Copeland surface replacement arthroplasty of the shoulder in rheumatoid arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2004; 86-A(3): 512-518.

Boileau P, Sinnerton RJ, Chuinard C, Walch G. Athroplasty of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2006; 88(5): 562-575.

Radnay CS, Setter KJ, Chambers L, Levine WN, Bigliani LU, Ahmad CS. Total shoulder replacement compared with humeral head replacement for the treatment of primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis: a systematic review. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2007; 16(4): 396-402.

Sanchez-Sotelo J. Total shoulder arthroplasty. Open Orthop J 2011; 5: 106-114.

Walch G, Boileau P, Noel E. Shoulder arthroplasty: evolving techniques and indications. Joint Bone Spine 2010; 77(6): 501-505.

Neer CSII. Articular replacement for the humeral head. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1955; 37-A: 215-218.

Celli A, Morrey BF. Total elbow arthroplasty in patients forty years of age or less. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2009; 91(6): 1414-1418.

Nair R. Review article: total wrist arthroplasty. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2014; 22(3): 399-405.

Taljanovic MS, Jones MD, Hunter TB, Benjamin JB, Ruth JT, Brown AW, Sheppard JE. Joint arthroplasties and prostheses. RadioGraphics 2003; 23: 1295-1314. Permission granted for use of images in this article by Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Swanson AB. Silicone rubber implants for replacement of arthritic or destroyed joints in the hand. Surg Clin N Amer 1968; 48: 1113-1127.

van Harlingen D, Heesterbeek PJC, de Vos MJ. High rate of complications and radiographic loosening of biaxial total wrist arthroplasty in rheumatoid patients. Acta Orthop 2011; 82(6): 721-726.

Bales JG, Wall LB, Stern PJ. Long-term results of Swanson silicone arthroplasty for proximal interphalangeal joint osteoarthritis. J Hand Surg Am 2014; 39(3): 455-461.

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Adkinson JM, Chung KC. Advances in small joint arthroplasty of the hand. Plast Reconstr Surg 2014; 134(6): 1260-1268.

Gililland JM, Anderson LA, Erickson J, Pelt CE, Peters, CL. Mean 5-year clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless total hip arthroplasty in patients under the age of 30. Biomed Res Int 2013; 2013: 649506.

Adelani MA, Keeney JA, Palisch A, Fowler SA, Clohisy JC. Has total hip arthroplasty in patients 30 years or younger improved? A systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2013; 471(8): 2595-2601.

Awan O, Chen L, Resnick CS. Imaging evaluation of complications of hip arthroplasty: review of current concepts and imaging findings. Can Assoc Radiol J 2013; 64(4): 306-313.

Bestic JM, Berquist TH. Current concepts in hip arthroplasty imaging: metal-on-metal prostheses, their complications, and imaging strategies. Semin Roentgenol 2013; 48(2): 178-186.

Mulcahy H, Chew FS. Current concepts of hip arthroplasty for radiologists; Part 1, features and radiographic assessment. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199: 559-569.

Mulcahy H, Chew FS. Current concepts of hip arthroplasty for radiologists; Part 2, revisions and complications. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 570-580.

Ardaugh BM, Graves SE, Redberg RF. The 501(k) ancestry of a metal-on-metal hip implant. N Engl J Med 2013; 363(2): 97-100.

Charnley J. The classic: The bonding of prostheses to bone by cement. 1964. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2010; 468(12): 3149-3159.

Charnley J. The long-term results of low-friction arthroplasty of the hip performed as a primary intervention. 1970. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2005; 430: 3-11.

Marshall DA, Pykerman K, Werle J, Lorenzetti D, Wasylak T, Noseworthy T, Dick DA, O'Connor G, Sundaram A, Heintzbergen S, Frank C. Hip resurfacing versus total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review comparing standardized outcomes. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2014; 472 (7): 2217-2230.

Bradberry SM, Wilkinson JM, Ferner RE. Systemic toxicity related to metal hip prostheses. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2014; 52 (8): 837-847.

Reito A, Moilanent T, Puolakka T, Pajamaki J, Eskelinen A. Repeated metal ion measurements in patients with high risk metal-on-metal hip replacement. Int Orthop 2014; 38 (7): 1353-1361.

Visuri T, Borq H, Pulkkinen P, Paavolainen P, Pukkala E. A retrospective comparative study of mortality and causes of death among patients with metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene total hip prostheses in primary osteoarthritis after a long-term follow-up. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2010; Apr 23;11:78. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-78.

Lindgren V, Gordon M, Wretenberg P, Karrholm J, Garellick G. Deep infection after total hip replacement: a method of national incidence surveillance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014; 35 (12): 1491-1496.

Dy CJ, Bozic KJ, Pan TJ, Wright TM, Padgett DE, Lyman S. Risk factors for early revision after total hip arthroplasty. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2014; 66 (6): 907-915.

Mulcahy H, Chew FS. Current concepts in knee replacement: features and imaging assessment. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2013; Dec; 201 (6): W828-842. doi: 10.2214/AJR.13.11307.

Lunebourg A, Parratee S, Gay A, Ollivier M, Garcia-Parra K, Argenson J-N. Lower function, quality of life, and survival rate after total knee arthroplasty for posttraumatic arthritis than for primary arthritis. Acta Orthopaedica 2014; Oct 28: 1-6.

Kumar N, Chandrashekhar Y, Raj R, Anand S. How to interpret postoperative x-rays after total knee arthroplasty. Orthop Surg 2014; 6 (3): 179-186.

Wang H, Lou H, Zhang H, Jiang J, Liu K. Similar survival between uncemented and cemented fixation prostheses in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis and systematic comparative analysis using registers. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2014; 22 (12): 3191-3197.

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McCalden RW, Robert CE, Howard JL, Naudie DD, McAuley JP, MacDonald SJ. Comparison of outcomes and survivorship between patients of different age groups following TKA. J Arthroplasty 2013; 28 (8 Suppl): 83-86.

Sabouret P, Lavoie F, Cloutier JM. Total knee replacement with retention of both cruciate ligaments: a 22-year follow-up study. Bone Joint 2013; 95-B (7): 917-922.

Lee SM, Seong SC, Lee S, Choi WC, Lee MC. Outcomes of the different types of total knee arthroplasty with identical femoral geometry. Knee Surg Relat Res 2012; 24 (4): 214-220.

Lee JK, Lee S, Kim D, Lee SM, Jang J, Seong SC, Lee MC. Revision total knee arthroplasty with varus-valgus constrained prosthesis versus posterior stabilized prosthesis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2013; 21 (3): 620-628.

Morgan H, Battista V, Leopold SS. Constraint in primary total knee arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2005; 13 (8): 515-524.

McAuley JP, Engh GA. Constraint in total knee arthroplasty: when and what? J Arthroplasty 2003; 18 (3 Suppl 1): 51-54.

Weinstein AM, Rome BN, Reichmann WM, Collins JE, Burbine SA, Thornhill TS, Wright J, Katz JN, Losina E. Estimating the burden of total knee replacement in the United States. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2013; 95 (5): 385-392.

Schiavone PA, Cerciello S, Del Regno C, Felici A, Vasso M. Patellar resurfacing complications in total knee arthroplasty. Int Orthop 2014; 38 (2): 313-317.

Bini SA, Khatod M, Inacio MC, Paxton EW. Same-day versus staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty poses no increase in complications in 6672 primary procedures. J Arthroplasty 2014; 29 (4): 694-697.

Berend KR, Turnbull NJ, Howell RE, Lombardi AV Jr. The current trends for lateral unicondylar knee arthroplasty. Orthop Clin North Am 2015; 46 (2): 177-184.

Craik JD, El Shafie SA, Singh VK, Twyman RS. Revision of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty versus primary total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 2014 Nov 11. pii: S0883-5403(14)00827-4. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2014.10.038. [Epub ahead of print].

Ji JH, Park SE, Song IS, Kang H, Ha JY, Jeong JJ. Complications of medial unicomparmental knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Surg 2014; 6 (4): 365-372.

Riff AJ, Sah AP, Della Valle CJ. Outcomes and complications of unicondylar arthroplasty. Clin Sports Med 2014; 33 (1): 149-160.

Liddle AD, Judge A, Pandit H, Murray DW. Adverse outcomes after total and unicompartmental knee replacement in 101,330 matched patients: a study of data from the National Joint Registry for England and Wales. Lancet 2014; 384 (9952): 1437-1445.

Baillie AG, Lewis PL, Brumby SA, Roy S, Paterson RS, Campbell DG. The Unispacer knee implant: early clinical results. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2008; 90 (4): 446-450.

Springer BD, Scott RD, Sah AP, Carrington R. McKeever hemiarthroplasty of the knee in patients less than sixty years old. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006; 88 (2): 366-371.

Mulcahy H, Chew FS. Current concepts in knee replacement: complications. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 202:W76-W86.

Hunt LP, Ben-Shlomo Y, Clark EM, Dieppe P, Judge A, MacGregor AJ, Tobias JH, Vernon K, Blom AW; National Joint Registry for England and Wales. 45-day mortality after 467,779 knee replacements for osteoarthritis from the National Joint Registry for England and Wales: an observational study. Lancet 2014; 384 (9952): 1429-1436.

Tiberi JV 3rd, Hansen V, El-Abbadi N, Bedair H. Increased complication rates after hip and knee arthroplasty in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2014; 472 (9): 2774-2778.

Miric A, Inacio MC, Kelly MP, Namba RS. Can total knee arthroplasty be safely performed among nonagenarians? An evaluation of morbidity and mortality within a total joint replacement registry. J Arthroplasty 2014; 29 (8): 1635-1638.

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Pedersen AB, Mehnert F, Sorensen HT, Emmeluth C, Overgaard S, Johnsen SP. The risk of venous thrombolembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, major bleeding and death in patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement: A 15-year retrospective cohort study of routine clinical practice. Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B (4): 479-485.

Dhar D. Fat embolism syndrome. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2012; 22 (12): 800-802.

Tsai IT, Hsu CJ, Chen YH, Fong YC, Hsu HC, Tsai CH. Fat embolism syndrome in long bone fracture-clinical experience in a tertiary referral center in Taiwan. J Chin Med Assoc 2010; 73 (8): 407-410.

Manrique J, Gomez MM, Parvizi J. Stiffness after total knee arthroplasty. J Knee Surg 2015; 28 (2): 119-126.

Choi HR, Bedair H. Mortality following revision total knee arthroplasty: a matched cohort study of septic versus aseptic revisions. J Arthroplasty 2014; 29 (6): 1216-1218.

Koh IJ, Cho WS, Choi NY, Kim TK, Kleos Korea Research Group. Causes, risk factors, and trends in failures after TKA in Korea over the past 5 years: a multicenter study. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2014; 472 (1): 316-326.

Schairer WW, Vail TP, Bozic KJ. What are the rates and causes of hospital readmission after total knee arthroplasty? Clin Orthop Relat Res 2014; 472 (1): 181-187.

Argenson JN, Boisgard S, Paratte S, Descamps S, Bercovy M, Bonnevialle P, Briard JL, Brilhaut J, Choteau J, Nizard R, Saragaglia D, Servien E, French Society of Orthopedic and Traumatologic Surgery (SOFCOT). Survival analysis of total knee arthroplasty at a minimum 10 years' follow-up: a multicenter French nationwide study including 846 cases. Orthop Tramatol Res 2013; 99 (4): 385-390.

Taljanovic MS, Hunter TB, Miller MD, Sheppard JE. Gallery of Medical Devices. Part I: Orthopedic devices for the extremities and pelvis. RadioGraphics 2005; 25: 859-870. Permission granted for use of images in this article by Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Permission for use of images published in Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994 is granted by Tim B Hunter, MD copyright owner.


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