Medical Apparatus: Imaging Guide to Orthopedic Devices

Neck & Spine: References

Overlying Materials

Neck Apparatus

Cervical Spine

Thoracic and Lumbar Spine





Medical Devices of the Neck and Spine: General References & Useful Links


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Cooper PR, Cohen A, Rosiello A, Coslow M. Posterior stabilization of cervical spine fractures and subluxations using plates and screws. Neurosurgery 1988; 23:300 –306.

Churney WB, Sonntag VK, Douglas RA. Lateral mass posterior plating and facet fusion for cervical spine instability. BNI Q 1991; 7:2–11.

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Whitehill R, Richman JA, Glaser JA. Failure of immobilization of the cervical spine by halo vest. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1986; 68:326 –332.

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Slone RM, MacMillan M, Montgomery WJ, Heare M. Spinal fixation. Part 2. Fixation techniques and hardware for the thoracic and lumbosacral spine. RadioGraphics 1993; 13:521–543.

Slone RM, MacMillan M, Montgomery WJ. Spinal fixation. Part 3. Complications of spinal instrumentation. RadioGraphics 1993; 13:797–816.

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Ray CD. Electrical and chemical stimulation of the CNS by direct means for pain control: present and future. Clin Neurosurg 1981; 28:564 –588.

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van Kerrebroeck PE. The role of electrical stimulation in voiding dysfunction. Eur Urol 1998; 34: 27–30.

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Price DB. Tubes in the alimentary and respiratory tracks: appearances on CT scans of the head and neck. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991; 156:1047– 1051.

Stoelting RK. Endotracheal intubation. In: Miller RD, ed. Anesthesia. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill- Livingstone, 1986.

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Rosenbaum JF, Heninger G. Vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 47:273–275.

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Burgett RA, Purvin VA, Kawasaki A. Lumboperitoneal shunting for pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology 1997; 49:734 –739.

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O'Donoghue G. Cochlear implants - science, serendipity, and success. N Engl J Med September 26, 2013; 369 (13): 1190-1193.

Buchbinder R, Osborne RH, Ebeling RS et al. A randomized trial of vertebroplasty for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures. N Engl J Med 2009; 361(6):557-568.

Comstock BA, Sitlani CM, Jarvik JG, Heagerty PJ, Turner JA, Kallmes DF. Investigational vertebroplasty safety and efficacy trial (INVEST); patient-reported outcomes through 1 year. Radiology 2013; 269, #1:224-231.

Weinstein SL, Dolan LA, Wright JG, Dobbs MB. Effects of bracing in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:1512-1521.

Carragee EJ, Lehman RA Jr. Spinal bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:1558-1560.

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Petscavage-Thomas JM, Ha AS. Imaging current spine hardware: Part I, cervical spine and fracture fixation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 394-405.

North MR. Spinal fusion-hardware construct: basic concepts and imaging review. World J Radiol 2012; 4: 193-207.

Hulme PA, Krebs J, Ferguson SJ, Berlemann U. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: a systematic review of 69 clinical studies. Spine 2006; 31: 1983-2001.

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Bloch O, McDermot MA. Lumboperitoneal shuns for the treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus. J Clin Neurosci 2012; 19(8): 1107-1011.

Ha AS, Petscavage-Thomas, JM. Imaging of current spinal hardware: lumbar spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 573-581.

Rutherford EE, Tarplett LJ, Davies EM, Harley JM, King LJ. Lumbar spine fusion and stabilization: hardware, techniques, and imaging appearances. RadioGraphics 2007; 27: 1737-1749.

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Murtagh RD, Quencer RM, Cohen DS, Yue JJ, Sklar EL. Normal and abnormal imaging findings in lumbar total disc replacement: devices and complications. RadioGraphics 2009; 29: 105-118.

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Chaudhary SB, Martinez M, Shah NP, Vives MJ. Traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation with Hangman fracture. Spine J 2015; 15 (4): e15-18.

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Cox M, Levin DC, Parker L, Morrison W, Long S, Rao VM. Vertebral augmentation after recent randomized controlled trials: a new rise in kyphoplasty volumes. J Am Coll Radiol 2016; 13: 28-32.

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Kallmes D, Comstock B, Heagerty PJ, Turner JA, Wilson DJ, et al. A randomized trial of vertebroplasty for osteoporotic spinal fractures. N Engl J Med 2009; 361(6): 569-579.

Weiss HR, Moramarco M. Congenital scoliosis (mini-review). Curr Pediatr Rev 2016; 12 (1): 43-47.

Yoshino MT. Medical devices of the head and neck. In: Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994; 348 –385.

Hunter TB, Yoshino MT, Dzioba RB, Light RA, Berger WG. Medical devices of the head, neck, and spine. RadioGraphics 2004; 24: 257-285. Permission granted for use of images in this article by Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Hunter TB, Taljanovic MS, Tsau PH, Berger WG, Standen JR. Medical devices of the chest. RadioGraphics 2004; 24: 1725-1746. Permission granted for use of images in this article by Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994.

Benjamin JB, Lund PJ. Orthopedic devices. In: Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994; 348 –385.

Winegar B, Kay MD, Chadaz TS, Taljanovic MS, Hood KA, Hunter TB. Update on imaging of spinal fixation hardware. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2019; 23:e56-e79.

Petscavage-Thomas J, Ouyang T, Bible J. Spine fixation hardward: an update. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2020; 215: 534-544.

Hinde K, Maingard J, Hirsch JA, Phan K, Asadi H, Chandra RV. Mortality outcomes of vertebral augmentation (vertebroplasty and/or balloon kyphoplasty) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Radiology 2020; 295(1): 96-103. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2020191294. Epub 200 Feb 18.

Jennings JW. Editorial. Vertebral augmentation is more than just pain palliation, it is about improved mortality. Radiology 2020; 295(1): 104-105. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2020192806. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Wangaryattawanich P, Kale HA, Kanter AS, Agarwal V. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion: review of surgical technique and post-operative multi-modality imaging findings. AJR Online First Accepted Manuscript: August 13, 2020. doi:10.2214/AJR.20.24074.


Permission for use of images published in Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994 is granted by Tim B Hunter, MD copyright owner.


Useful Links

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

Medical Device Manufacturers

MRI Questions

MRI Safety Information

National Scoliosis Foundation

Ortho Atlas


Scoliosis Research Society

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

United States Food and Drug Administration Medical Device Databases


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Tim Hunter

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