Medical Apparatus: Imaging Guide to Orthopedic Devices

Orthopedic Devices

Joint Arthroplasty

Conservative Fracture Treatment

Internal Fixation - pins, wires, and screws

Internal Fixation - plates

Internal Fixation - nails and rods

Internal Fixation - bone grafts and bone substitutes

Carbon Fiber Implants

Fracture Fixation References

Joint Arthroplasty References




Fracture Fixation: References & Useful Links

Ruedi TP, Buckley RE, Moran CG, eds. AO principles of fracture management. Stuttgart, Germany: Thieme, 2007.

Benjamin BB, Lund PJ. Orthopedic devices. In: Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994; 348 –385.

Wiss DA, ed. Master techniques in orthopedic surgery. 3rd edition. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven, 2013.

Berquist TH, ed. Imaging atlas of orthopedic appliances and prostheses. New York, NY: Raven, 1995.

Freiberg AA, ed. The radiology of orthopedic implants: an atlas of techniques and assessment. St Louis, Mo: Mosby, 2001.

Hunter TB, Taljanovic M. Overview of medical devices. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2001; 30:94–139.

Althausen PL, Hak DJ. Lower extremity traction pins: indications, technique, and complications. Am J Orthop 2002; 31:43–47.

Parker MJ, Handoll HHG. Pre-operative traction for fractures of the proximal femur (Cochrane review). In: the Cochrane library, issue 4, 2002. Oxford: Update software.

Parker MJ, Stockton G. Internal fixation implants for intracapsular proximal femoral fractures in adults: Cochrane database of systemic reviewers (Cochrane review). In: the Cochrane library, issue 4, 2002. Oxford: Update software.

Stover M. Distal femoral fractures: current treatment, results and problems. Injury 2001; 32:SC3– SC13.

Craig NJ, Sivaji C, Maffulli N. Subtrochanteric fractures: a review of treatment options. Bull Hosp Joint Dis 2001; 60:35–46.

Jebson PJ, Adams BD. Wrist arthrodesis: review of current techniques. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2001; 9:53–60.

Hunter TB, Taljanovic MS. Glossary of medical devices and procedures: abbreviations, acronyms, and definitions. RadioGraphics 2003; 23:195– 213.

Herbert TJ, Fisher WE. Management of the fractured scaphoid using a new bone screw. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1984; 66:114 –123.

Manaster BJ, Remley K, Newman AP, Mann FA. Knee ligament reconstruction: plain film analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1988; 150:337–342.

Martin SD, Martin TL, Brown CH. Anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation. Orthop Clin North Am 2002; 33:685–696.

Resnick DL, Kang HS, Pretterklieber ML. Internal derangements of joints: emphasis on MR imaging. Second edition. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders, 2007.

Kurosaka M, Yoshiya S, Andrish JT. A biomechanical comparison of different surgical techniques of graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med 1987; 15: 225–229.

Beevers DJ. Metal vs bioabsorbable interference screws: initial fixation. Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2003; 217:59 –75.

Pena F, Grontvedt T, Brown GA, Aune Ak, Engebretsen L. Comparison of failure strength between metallic and absorbable interference screws: influence of insertion torque, tunnel-bone block gap, bone mineral density, and interference. Am J Sports Med 1996; 24:329 –334.

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Collinge CA, Sanders RW. Percutaneous plating in the lower extremity. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2000; 8:211–216.

Kregor PJ, Stannard J, Zlowodzki M, Cole PA, Alfonso J. Distal femoral fracture fixation utilizing the less invasive stabilization system (L.I.S.S.): the technique and early results. Injury 2001; 32: SC32–SC47.

Frigg R, Appenzeller A, Christensen R, Frenk A, Gilbert S, Schavan R. The development of the distal femur less invasive stabilization system (LISS). Injury 2001; 32:SC24 –SC31.

Kregor PJ. Distal femur fractures with complex articular involvement: management by articular exposure and submuscular fixation. Orthop Clin North Am 2002; 33:153–175, ix.

Ajmal M, O’Sullivan M, NcCabe J, Curtin W. Antegrade locked intramedullary nailing in humeral shaft fractures. Injury 2001; 32:692–694.

Oh CW, Park BC, Kim PT, Kyung HS, Kim SJ, Ihn JC. Retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing in children’s femoral fractures. Int Orthop 2002; 26:52–55.

Parikh SN. Bone graft substitutes in modern orthopedics. Orthopedics 2002; 25:1301–1311.

Larsson S, Bauer TW. Use of injectable calcium phosphate cement for fracture fixation: a review. Clin Orthop 2002; 395:23–32.

Petruskevicius J, Nielsen S, Kaalund S, Knudsen PR, Overgaard S. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study. Acta Orthop Scand 2002; 73:575–578.

Wilkins RM, Kelly CM, Giusti DE. Bioassayed demineralized bone matrix and calcium sulfate: use in bone-grafting procedures. Ann Chir Gynaecol 1999; 88:180 –185.

Robinson D, Alk D, Sandbank J, Farber R, Halperin N. Inflammatory reactions associated with a calcium sulfate bone substitute. Ann Transplant 1999; 4:91–97.

Ladd AL, Pliam NB. Use of bone graft substitutes in distal radius fractures. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1999; 7:279 –290.

Sherry E, Boeck H, Warnke PH. Percutaneous treatment of chronic MRSA osteomyelitis with a novel plant-derived antiseptic. BMC Surg 2001; 1:1–4.

Beaman FD, Bancroft LW, Peterson JJ, Kransdorf MJ, Menke DM, De Orio JK. Imaging characteristics of bone graft materials. RadioGrapics 2006 Mar-Apr 2006; 26(2):373-388.

Kurien T, Pearson RG, Scammell BE. Bone graft substitutes currently available in orthopaedic practice: the evidence for their use. Bone Joint J 2013 May; 95-B(5):583-587.

Bhatt RA, Rozental TD. Bone graft substitutes. Hand Clin 2012 Nov; 28(4):457-468.

Keramidas EG, Miller G. The Suzuki frame for complex intraarticular fractures of the thumb. Plast Reconstr Surg 2005; 116 (5): 1326-1331.

Porrino JA, Maloney E, Scherer K, Mulcahy H, Ha AS, Allan C. Fractures of the distal radius: postmanagement radiographic characterization. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 846-853.

Puddu G, Cipolla M, Cerullo G, Franco V, Gianni E. Osteotomies: the surgical treatment of the valgus knee. Sports Med Arthrosc 2007; 15 (1): 15-22.

Melville DM, Taljanovic MS, Scalcione LR, Eble JM, Gimber LH, DeSilva GL, Sheppard JE. Imaging and management of thumb carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis. Skeletal Radiol 2015; 44 (2): 165-177.

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Tiren D, van Bemmel AJ, Swank DJ, van der Linden FM. Hook plate fixation of acute displaced lateral clavicle fractures: mid-term results and brief literature overview. J Orhop Surg Res 2012 Jan 11; 7:2.

AAOS. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Locking plates for extremity fractures. A technology overview. PDF (2008) available at:

Hak DJ, Mauffrey C, Seligson D, Lindeque B. Use of carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implants in orthopedic surgery. Orthopedics 2014; 37 (12): 825-830.

Hillock R, Howard S. Historical review. Utility of carbon fiber implants in orthopedic surgery: literature review. JISRF Reconstructive Review 2014; 4 (1): 23-32.

Steinberg EL, Rath E, Shlaifer A, Chechik O, Maman E, Salai M. Carbon fiber reinforced PEEK Optima-a compositie material biomechanical properties and wear/debris characteristics of CF-PEEK composities for orthopedic trauma implants. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2013; 17: 221-228.

Taljanovic MS, Hunter TB, Miller MD, Sheppard JE. Gallery of Medical Devices. Part I: Orthopedic devices for the extremities and pelvis. RadioGraphics 2005; 25: 859-870. Permission granted for use of images in this article by Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).


Permission for use of images published in Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994 is granted by Tim B Hunter, MD copyright owner.



Useful Links:


American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

MRI Safety Information

Orthopedic Medical Device Manufacturers and Associated Useful Websites

Orthopedic Hardware Atlas

Ortho Atlas


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Tim Hunter

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