Medical Apparatus: Imaging Guide to Orthopedic Devices

Neck & Spine: References

Overlying Materials

Neck Apparatus

Cervical Spine

Thoracic and Lumbar Spine





Medical Devices of the Neck and Spine: General References & Useful Links


Pudenz RH. The surgical treatment of hydrocephalus: an historical review. Surg Neurol 1981; 15:15–26.

Portnoy HD, Schulte RR, Fox JL, Croissant PD, Tripp L. Antisiphon and reversible occlusion valve for shunting in hydrocephalus and preventing post-shunt subdural hematomas. J Neurosurg 1973; 38:729 –738.

Goeser CD, McLeary MS, Young LW. Diagnostic imaging of ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunctions and complications. RadioGraphics 1998; 18:635–651.

Zemack G, Romner B. Seven years of clinical experience with the programmable Codman Hakim valve: a retrospective study of 583 patients. J Neurosurg 2000; 92:941–948.

Black DW. Subdural hematoma. Postgrad Med 1985; 78:107–114.

Camel M, Grubb RL. Treatment of chronic subdural hematoma by twist-drill craniotomy with continuous catheter drainage. J Neurosurg 1986. 65:183–187.

Markwalder TM, Seiler RW. Chronic subdural hematomas: to drain or not to drain? Neurosurgery 1985; 16:185–188.

Nakaguchi H, Tanishima T, Yoshimasu N. Relationship between drainage catheter location and postoperative recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma after burr-hole irrigation and closed-system drainage. J Neurosurg 2000; 93:791–795.

Katariwala NM, Bakay RA, Pennell PB, Olson LD, Henry TR, Epstein CM. Remission of intractable partial epilepsy following implantation of intracranial electrodes. Neurology 2001; 57:1505–1507.

Matsunaga K, Akamatsu N, Uozumi T, Urasaki E, Tsuji S. Early and late inhibition in the human motor cortex studied by paired stimulation through subdural electrodes. Clin Neurophysiol 2002; 113:1099 –1109.

Saint-Cyr JA, Hoque T, Pereira LC, et al. Localization of clinically effective stimulating electrodes in the human subthalamic nucleus on magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg 2002; 97:1152– 1166.

Yang PJ, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Platinum wire, a new transvascular embolic agent. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1988; 9:547–550.

Jansen O, Dorfler A, Forsting M, et al. Endovascular therapy of arteriovenous fistulae with electrolytically detachable coils. Neuroradiology 1999; 41:951–957.

Hemphill JC 3rd, Gress DR, Halbach VV. Endovascular therapy of traumatic injuries of the intracranial cerebral arteries. Crit Care Clin 1999; 15: 811–829.

Matsumaru Y, Hyodo A, Nose T, Hirano T, Ohashi S. Embolic materials for endovascular treatment of cerebral lesions. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 1997; 8:555–569.

Yasargil MG, Vise WM, Bader DC. Technical adjuncts in neurosurgery. Surg Neurol 1977; 8:331–336.

Dempsey JF, Williams JA, Stubbs JB, Patrick TJ, Williamson JF. Dosimetric properties of a novel brachytherapy balloon applicator for the treatment of malignant brain-tumor resection-cavity margins. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1998; 42:421– 429.

Hammoud DA, Belden CJ, Ho AC, Dal Pan J, Herskovits EH, et. al. The surgical bed after BCNU polymer wafer placement for recurrent glioma: serial assessment on CT and MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2003; 180:1469 –1475.

Corcoran AL. A very basic introduction to hearing aids. Int Rehabil Med 1983; 5:79 –81.

Berliner KI, House WF. The cochlear implant program: an overview. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 1982; 91:11–14.

Back to Top

Witte RJ, Lane JI, Driscoll CLW, Lundy LB, Bernstein MA, Kotsenas AL, Kocharian A. Pediatric and adult cochlear implantation. RadioGraphics 2003; 23:1185–1200.

Gates GA, Miyamoto RT. Cochlear implants. N Engl J Med 2003; 349:421–423.

Hodges AV, Balkany TJ. Cochlear implants for sensorineural hearing loss. Hosp Phys 2002; 38: 22– 28.

Stone JA, Mukherji SK, Jewett BS, Carrasco VN, Castillo M. CT evaluation of prosthetic ossicular reconstruction procedures: what the otologist needs to know. RadioGraphics 2000; 20:593–605.

Stringfellow GJ, Francis IC. Images in clinical medicine: appearance of intraocular silicone oil on computed tomography. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 1122.

Ko G, Song H, Seo T, Sung K, Yoon H. Obstruction of the lacrimal system: treatment with a covered, retrievable, expandable nitinol stent versus a lacrimal polyurethane stent. Radiology 2003; 227: 270–276.

Bohler J, Gaudernak T. Anterior plate stabilization for fracture-dislocation of lower cervical spine. J Trauma 1980; 20:203–205.

Crockard HA, Ransford AO. Stabilization of the spine. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 1990; 17:159 – 188.

Gore DR, Gardner GM, Sepic SB, Murray MP. Roentgenographic findings following anterior cervical fusion. Skeletal Radiol 1986; 15:556 –559.

Larson SJ, Sances A, Cusic JF, Meyer GA, Swiontek T. A comparison between anterior and posterior spinal implant systems. Surg Neurol 1975; 4:180–186.

de Oliveira JC. Anterior plate fixation of traumatic lesions of the lower cervical spine. Spine 1987; 12:324–329.

Cooper PR, Cohen A, Rosiello A, Coslow M. Posterior stabilization of cervical spine fractures and subluxations using plates and screws. Neurosurgery 1988; 23:300 –306.

Churney WB, Sonntag VK, Douglas RA. Lateral mass posterior plating and facet fusion for cervical spine instability. BNI Q 1991; 7:2–11.

Lesoin F, Viaud C, Jomin M. Universal plate for anterior cervical spine osteosynthesis. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1985; 77:60 –61.

Stauffer ES. Wiring techniques of the posterior cervical spine for the treatment of trauma. Orthopedics 1988; 11:1543–1548.

Tippets RH, Apfelbaum RI. Anterior cervical fusion with the Caspar instrumentation system. Neurosurgery 1988; 22:1008 –1013

Johnson RM, Owen JR, Hart DL, Callahan RA. Cervical orthoses. Clin Orthop 1981; 154:34 –45.

Esses SI, Bednar DA. Screw fixation of odontoid fractures and nonunions. Spine 1991; 16:S483– S485.

Bucholz RD, Cheung KC. Halo vest versus spinal fusion for cervical injury: evidence from an outcome study. J Neurosurg 1989; 70:884-892..

Kostuik JP. Indications for use of the halo immobilization. Clin Orthop 1981; 154:46 –50.

Back to Top

Whitehill R, Richman JA, Glaser JA. Failure of immobilization of the cervical spine by halo vest. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1986; 68:326 –332.

Cotrel Y, Dubousset J, Guillaumat M. New universal instrumentation in spinal surgery. Clin Orthop 1988; 227:10 –23.

Drummond DS. Harrington instrumentation with spinous process wiring for idiopathic scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am 1988; 19:281–289.

Egnatchik JG. Lumbar spine stabilization: techniques. Clin Neurosurg 1990; 36:159 –167.

Luque ER. Interpeduncular segmental fixation. Clin Orthop 1986; 203:54 –57.

Selby D. The Knodt Rad. In: White AH, Rothman RH, Ray CD, eds. Lumbar spine surgery. St Louis, Mo: Mosby, 1982.

Steffee AD, Biscup RS, Sitkowski DJ. Segmental spine plates with pedicle screw fixation. Clin Orthop 1986; 203:45–53.

Lee CK, Langrana NA, Parsons JR, Zimmerman MC. Development of a prosthetic intervertebral disc. Spine 1991; 16:S253–S255.

Hu SS, Pashman RS. Spinal instrumentation: evolution and state of the art. Invest Radiol 1992; 27: 632–647.

Slone RM, MacMillan M, Montgomery WJ. Spinal fixation. Part 1. Principles, basic hardware, and fixation techniques for the cervical spine. RadioGraphics 1993; 13:341–356.

Slone RM, MacMillan M, Montgomery WJ, Heare M. Spinal fixation. Part 2. Fixation techniques and hardware for the thoracic and lumbosacral spine. RadioGraphics 1993; 13:521–543.

Slone RM, MacMillan M, Montgomery WJ. Spinal fixation. Part 3. Complications of spinal instrumentation. RadioGraphics 1993; 13:797–816.

Aebi M, Thalgott JS, Webb JK. AO ASIF principles in spine surgery. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 1998.

An HS, Cotler JM, eds. Spinal instrumentation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Benzel EC. Spine surgery. Vols 1, 2. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders, 2012.

Hitchon PW, Traynelis VC, Rengachary S. Techniques in spinal fusion and stabilization. New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers, 1995.

Cotten A, Boutry N, Cortet B, et al. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: state of the art. RadioGraphics 1998; 18:311–323.

Burton C. Dorsal column stimulation, optimization of application. Surg Neurol 1975; 4:171–179.

Campos RJ, Dimitrijevic MR, Sharkey PC, Sherwood AM. Epidural spinal cord stimulation in spastic spinal cord injury patients. Appl Neurophysiol 1987; 50:453–454.

Mundinger F, Neumuller H. Programmed stimulation for control of chronic pain and motor diseases. Appl Neurophysiol 1982; 45:102–111.

Back to Top

Ray CD. Electrical and chemical stimulation of the CNS by direct means for pain control: present and future. Clin Neurosurg 1981; 28:564 –588.

Richardson RR, Siqueira EB, Cerullo LJ. Spinal epidural neuro stimulation for treatment of acute and chronic intractable pain: initial and long term results. Neurosurgery 1979; 5:344 –348.

van Kerrebroeck PE. The role of electrical stimulation in voiding dysfunction. Eur Urol 1998; 34: 27–30.

Phillips R. Skinner’s science of dental materials. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders, 1991.

Stafne E. Stafne’s oral radiographic diagnosis. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders, 1985.

Price DB. Tubes in the alimentary and respiratory tracks: appearances on CT scans of the head and neck. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991; 156:1047– 1051.

Stoelting RK. Endotracheal intubation. In: Miller RD, ed. Anesthesia. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill- Livingstone, 1986.

Hunter TB, Taljanovic MS. Overview of medical devices. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2001; 30:94 – 139.

Morris GL, Mueller WM. Long term treatment with vagus nerve stimulation in patients with refractory epilepsy. The Vagus Nerve Stimulation Study Group E01–E05. Neurology 1999; 53: 1731–1735.

Rosenbaum JF, Heninger G. Vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 47:273–275.

Li V. Methods and complications in surgical cerebrospinal fluid shunting. Neurosurg Clin N Am 2001; 12:685–693.

Burgett RA, Purvin VA, Kawasaki A. Lumboperitoneal shunting for pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology 1997; 49:734 –739.

Vicenzi MN, Gombotz H, Krenn H, Dorn C, Rehak P. Transesophageal versus surface pulse oximetry in intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med 2000; 28:2268 –2270.

Mekjavic IB, Rempel ME. Determination of esophageal probe insertion length based on standing and sitting height. J Appl Physiol 1990; 69: 376–379.

Robinson J, Charlton J, Seal R, Spady D, Joffres MR. Oesophageal, rectal, axillary, tympanic and pulmonary artery temperatures during cardiac surgery. Can J Anaesth 1998; 45:317–323.

O'Donoghue G. Cochlear implants - science, serendipity, and success. N Engl J Med September 26, 2013; 369 (13): 1190-1193.

Buchbinder R, Osborne RH, Ebeling RS et al. A randomized trial of vertebroplasty for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures. N Engl J Med 2009; 361(6):557-568.

Comstock BA, Sitlani CM, Jarvik JG, Heagerty PJ, Turner JA, Kallmes DF. Investigational vertebroplasty safety and efficacy trial (INVEST); patient-reported outcomes through 1 year. Radiology 2013; 269, #1:224-231.

Weinstein SL, Dolan LA, Wright JG, Dobbs MB. Effects of bracing in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:1512-1521.

Carragee EJ, Lehman RA Jr. Spinal bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:1558-1560.

Back to Top

Petscavage-Thomas JM, Ha AS. Imaging current spine hardware: Part I, cervical spine and fracture fixation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 394-405.

North MR. Spinal fusion-hardware construct: basic concepts and imaging review. World J Radiol 2012; 4: 193-207.

Hulme PA, Krebs J, Ferguson SJ, Berlemann U. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: a systematic review of 69 clinical studies. Spine 2006; 31: 1983-2001.

Stradiotti P, Curti, A, Castellazzi G, Zerbi A. Metal-related artifacts in instrumented spine. Techniques for reducing artifacts in CT and MRI: state of the art. Eur Spine 2009 June; Suppl 1:102-108.

McConnell CT, Wippold FJ II, Ray CE Jr, et al. ACR appropriateness criteria management of vertebral compression fractures. J Am Coll Radiol 2014; 11: 757-763.

Noblett KL, Cadish LA. Sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of refractory voiding and bowel dysfunction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014; 210(2): 99-106.

Steele SS. Sacral nerve stimulation: 50 years in the making. Can Urol Assoc J 2012; 6(4): 231-232.

Terra VC, Furlanetti LL, Nunes AA, Thome U, Nisyiama MA, Sakamoto AC, Machado HR. Vagus nerve stimulation in pediatric patients: is it really worthwhile? Epilepsy Behav 2014; 31:329-333.

Ogbonnaya S, Kaliaperumal C. Vagal nerve stimuator: evolving trends. J Nat Sci Bio Med 2013; 4(1): 8-13.

Bloch O, McDermot MA. Lumboperitoneal shuns for the treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus. J Clin Neurosci 2012; 19(8): 1107-1011.

Ha AS, Petscavage-Thomas, JM. Imaging of current spinal hardware: lumbar spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 573-581.

Rutherford EE, Tarplett LJ, Davies EM, Harley JM, King LJ. Lumbar spine fusion and stabilization: hardware, techniques, and imaging appearances. RadioGraphics 2007; 27: 1737-1749.

Ross JS. Specialty imaging: postoperative spine. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.

Weinstein JN, Lurie JD, Tosteson JD, Hanscom B, Toteson AN, Blood EA, Birkmeyer NJ, Hillbrand AS et al. Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 2257-2270.

Murtagh RD, Quencer RM, Cohen DS, Yue JJ, Sklar EL. Normal and abnormal imaging findings in lumbar total disc replacement: devices and complications. RadioGraphics 2009; 29: 105-118.

Mobbs RJ, Loganathan A, Yeung V, Rao PJ. Indications for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Orthop Surg 2013; 5(3): 153-163.

Chaudhary SB, Martinez M, Shah NP, Vives MJ. Traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation with Hangman fracture. Spine J 2015; 15 (4): e15-18.

Xie Y, Li Z, Tang H, Li M, Guan Z. Posterior C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw internal fixation for atlantoaxial instability. J Clin Neurosci 2009; 16 (12): 1592-1594.

Deer TR, Smith HS, Burton AW, Pope JE, Doleys DM, Levy RM, Staats PS et al. Comprehensive consensus based guidelines on intrathecal drug delivery systems in the treatment of pain caused by cancer pain. Pain Physician 2011; May-Jun 14 (3): E283-312.

Cox M, Levin DC, Parker L, Morrison W, Long S, Rao VM. Vertebral augmentation after recent randomized controlled trials: a new rise in kyphoplasty volumes. J Am Coll Radiol 2016; 13: 28-32.

Back to Top

Kallmes D, Comstock B, Heagerty PJ, Turner JA, Wilson DJ, et al. A randomized trial of vertebroplasty for osteoporotic spinal fractures. N Engl J Med 2009; 361(6): 569-579.

Weiss HR, Moramarco M. Congenital scoliosis (mini-review). Curr Pediatr Rev 2016; 12 (1): 43-47.

Yoshino MT. Medical devices of the head and neck. In: Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994; 348 –385.

Hunter TB, Yoshino MT, Dzioba RB, Light RA, Berger WG. Medical devices of the head, neck, and spine. RadioGraphics 2004; 24: 257-285. Permission granted for use of images in this article by Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Hunter TB, Taljanovic MS, Tsau PH, Berger WG, Standen JR. Medical devices of the chest. RadioGraphics 2004; 24: 1725-1746. Permission granted for use of images in this article by Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994.

Benjamin JB, Lund PJ. Orthopedic devices. In: Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994; 348 –385.


Permission for use of images published in Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994 is granted by Tim B Hunter, MD copyright owner.


Useful Links

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

Medical Device Manufacturers

MRI Questions

MRI Safety Information

National Scoliosis Foundation

Ortho Atlas


Scoliosis Research Society

U.S. Food and Drug Administration


Back to Top



Author contact information

Tim Hunter

All Rights Reserved

Publisher Contact Information

Main office: USA (New York)
Cambridge University Press
32 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10013-2473

Phone: (212) 337-5000