Medical Apparatus: Imaging Guide to Orthopedic Devices

References - Introduction


Imaging Protocols


Medical devices: legal, regulatory, and quality assurance considerations


Medical Device Manufacturers



Imaging Protocols: References & Useful Links


Li H., et al. Metal artifact suppression from reformatted projections in multi-slice helical CT using dual-front active contours. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2009. 2009: p. 993-996.

Buckwalter KA, Lin C, Ford JM. Managing postoperative artifacts on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2011; 15(4): 309-319.

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Buckwalter KA, et al. Multichannel CT Imaging of Orthopedic Hardware and Implants. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2006; 10(1): 86-97.

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Meinel FG, et al. Metal artifact reduction by dual-energy computed tomography using energetic extrapolation: a systematically optimized protocol. Invest Radiol 2012; 47(7): 406-414.

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Lee YH, et al. Metal artefact reduction in gemstone spectral imaging dual-energy CT with and without metal artefact reduction software. Eur Radiol 2012; 22(6): 1331-1340.

Pessis E, et al. Virtual monochromatic spectral imaging with fast kilovoltage switching: reduction of metal artifacts at CT. Radiographics 2013; 33(2): 573-583.

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Yu L, Leng S, McCollough CH. Dual-energy CT-based monochromatic imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199(5 Suppl): S9-S15.

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Naudie DD, Rorabeck CH. Sources of osteolysis around total knee arthroplasty: wear of the bearing surface. Instr Course Lect 2004; 53: 251-259.

Chiang PP, et al. Osteolysis of the pelvis: evaluation and treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2003; 417: 164-174.

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Lonstein JE, et al. Complications associated with pedicle screws. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1999; 81(11): 1519-1528.

Clarke HD, Math KR, Scuderi GR. Polyethylene post failure in posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 2004; 19(5): 652-657.

Zhuo J, Gullapalli RP. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: MR artifacts, safety, and quality control. Radiographics 2006; 26(1): 275-297.

Singh DR, Chin MS, Peh, WC. Artifacts in musculoskeletal MR imaging. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2014; 18(1): 12-22.

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Morelli JN, et al. An image-based approach to understanding the physics of MR artifacts. Radiographics 2011; 31(3): 849-866.

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Bronskill MJ, et al. Syrinx-like artifacts on MR images of the spinal cord. Radiology 1988; 166(2): 485-488.

Turner DA, et al. Truncation artifact: a potential pitfall in MR imaging of the menisci of the knee. Radiology 1991; 179(3): 629-633.

Breger RK, et al. Truncation artifact in MR images of the intervertebral disk. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1988; 9(5): 825-828.

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Beltran LS, Bencardino JT, Steinbach LS. Postoperative MRI of the shoulder. J Magn Reson Imaging, 2014; 40(6): 1280-1297.

Raphael B, et al. MRI comparison of periprosthetic structures around zirconium knee prostheses and cobalt chrome prostheses. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006; 186 (6): 1771-1777.

Lu W, et al. SEMAC: Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction in MRI. Magn Reson Med 2009; 62(1): 66-76.

Sofka CM, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2003; (406): 129-135.

Potter HG, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging after total hip arthroplasty: evaluation of periprosthetic soft tissue. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2004; 86-A(9): 1947-1954.

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Koch KM, et al. A multispectral three-dimensional acquisition technique for imaging near metal implants. Magn Reson Med 2009; 61(2): 381-390.

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Sutter R, et al. Reduction of metal artifacts in patients with total hip arthroplasty with slice-encoding metal artifact correction and view-angle tilting MR imaging. Radiology 2012; 265(1): 204-214.

Liebl H, et al. In vitro assessment of knee MRI in the presence of metal implants comparing MAVRIC-SL and conventional fast spin echo sequences at 1.5 and 3 T field strength. J Magn Reson Imaging, 2014; 2014 Jun 10. doi: 10.1002/jmri.24668. [Epub ahead of print].

Carl M, Koch K, Du J. MR imaging near metal with undersampled 3D radial UTE-MAVRIC sequences. Magn Reson Med 2013; 69(1): 27-36.

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Sochart DH, Porter ML The long-term results of Charnley low-friction arthroplasty in young patients who have congenital dislocation, degenerative osteoarthrosis, or rheumatoid arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1997; 79(11): 1599-1617.

Hayter CL, et al. MRI findings in painful metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199(4): 884-893.

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Clayton RA, et al. Inflammatory pseudotumor associated with femoral nerve palsy following metal-on-metal resurfacing of the hip. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2008; 90(9): 1988-1993.

Mahendra G, et al. Necrotic and inflammatory changes in metal-on-metal resurfacing hip arthroplasties. Acta Orthop 2009; 80(6): 653-659.

Pandit H, et al. Pseudotumours associated with metal-on-metal hip resurfacings. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2008; 90(7): 847-851.

Grammatopoulos G, et al. The relationship between head-neck ratio and pseudotumour formation in metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2010; 92(11): 1527-1534.

De Haan R, et al. Revision of metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip: the influence of malpositioning of the components. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2008; 90(9): 1158-1163.

Glyn-Jones S, et al. Risk factors for inflammatory pseudotumour formation following hip resurfacin. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2009; 91(12): 1566-1574.

Kwon YM, et al. "Asymptomatic" pseudotumors after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty: prevalence and metal ion study. J Arthroplasty 2011; 26(4): 511-518.

Chen Z, et al. Metal-on-metal hip resurfacings--a radiological perspective. Eur Radiol 2011; 21(3): 485-491.

Anderson H, et al. Grading the severity of soft tissue changes associated with metal-on-metal hip replacements: reliability of an MR grading system. Skeletal Radiol 2011; 40(3): 303-307.

Choi S-J, Koch KM, Hargreaves BA, Stevens KJ, Gold GE. Metal artifact reduction with MAVRIC SL at 3-T MRI in patients with hip arthroplasty. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2015; 204: 140-147.

Talbot BS, Weinberg EP. MR imaging with metal-suppression sequences for evaluation of total joint arthroplasty. Radiographics 2016; 36: 209-225.

Yoo HJ, Hong SH, Chung BM, Moon SJ, Choi J, Chae HD, Chang MY. Metal artifact reduction in virtual monoenergetic spectral dual-energy CT of patients with metallic orthopedic implants in distal radius. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018; 211 (5): 1083-1091. DOI. 10:2214/AJR.18.19514.

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Jagoda P, Schmitz D, Wagenpfeil S, Bucker A, Minko P. Comparison of metal artifact reduction in dual- and single-source CT: a vertebral phantom study. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018; 211: 1298-1305.

Hoff MN, McKinney A IV, Shellock FG, Rassner U, Gilk T, Watson RE Jr, Greenberg TD, Froelich J, Kanal E. Safety considerations of 7-TMRI in clinical practice. Radiology 2019; 292: 509-518. July 16, 2019. Https://


Useful Links

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

American College of Radiology (ACR) (Reston, VA)

American Dental Association (Chicago, IL)

American Medical Association (AMA) (Chicago, IL)

Cellaxys (Las Vega, NV) (Stem cell therapy)

Device Manufacturers

(FDA) United States Food and Drug Administration Medical Device Databases (Washington, DC)

FDA - Dental Devices

MRI Questions

MRI Safety Information

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement

Orthopedic Hardware Atlas

Ortho Atlas


Questions and Answers in MRI

Radiology Assistant (Netherlands)


United States Patent and Trademark Office


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Author contact information

Tim Hunter

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