Medical Apparatus: Imaging Guide to Orthopedic Devices

Foreign Bodies continued

Foreign Bodies Introduction

Foreign Body Ingestions

Foreign Body Insertions

Foreign Body Injuries

Miscellaneous Foreign Bodies

MRI Safety Information

Foreign Bodies: References & Links





Foreign Body References & Useful Links

Schwartz GF, Polsky HS. Ingested foreign bodies of the gastrointestinal tract. Am Surg 1976; 42: 236-238.

Eldridge WW. Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. JAMA 1961; 178:665-66

Maglinte DDT, Taylor SD, Ng AC. Gastrointestinal perforation by chicken bones. Radiology 1979; 130:597–599.

McPherson RC, Karlon M, Williams RD. Foreign body perforation of the intestinal tract. Am J Surg 1957; 94:564–566.

Maleki M, Evans WE. Foreign body perforation of the intestinal tract: report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Arch Surg 1970; 101:475–477.

Selivanov V, Sheldon GF, Cello JP, Crass RA. Management of foreign body ingestion. Ann Surg 1984; 199:187–191.

Segal I, Nouri MA, Hamilton DG, et al. Foreign body ileitis: a case report. S Afr Med J 1980; 588: 421–422.

Himadi GM, Fischer GJ. Magnetic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract. Radiology 1977; 123:226–227.

Balch CM, Silver D. Foreign bodies in the appendix. Arch Surg 1971; 102:14–20.

Price J, Dewar GA, Metreweli C. Airgun pellet appendicitis. Australas Radiol 1988; 32:368–370.

Muhletaler CA, Gerlock AJ Jr, Shull HS, Adkins RB Jr. The pill bottle dessicant: a cause of partial gastrointestinal obstruction. JAMA 1980; 242: 1921–1922.

Hunter TB. Bottle cap ingestion. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991; 157:411–412.

Jackson CL. Foreign bodies in the esophagus. Am J Surg 1957; 93:308–312.

Nandi P, Ong GB. Foreign body in the esophagus: review of 2394 cases. Br J Surg 1978; 65:5–9.

Chaikhouni A, Kratz JM, Crawford FA. Foreign bodies of the esophagus. Am Surg 1985; 51:173-179.

Vizcarrondo FJ, Brady PG, Nord HJ. Foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointest Endosc 1983; 29:208–210.

Bunker PG. The role of dentistry in problems of foreign bodies in the air and food passages. J Am Dent Assoc 1962; 64:782–787.

Kuhns DW, Dire DJ. Button battery ingestions. Ann Emerg Med 1989; 18:293–300.

Studley JGN, Linehan IP, Ogilvie AL, Dowling BL. Swallowed button batteries: is there a consensus on management? Gut 1990; 31:867–870.

Jaffe RB, Corneli HM. Fluoroscopic removal of ingested alkaline batteries. Radiology 1984; 150: 585–586.

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Shaffer HA, Alfred BA, deLange EE, Meyer GA, McIlhenny J. Basket extraction of esophageal foreign bodies. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986; 147: 1010–1013.

Volle E, Hand D, Berger P, Kaufman HJ. Ingested foreign bodies: removal by magnet. Radiology 1986; 160:407–409.

Bundred NJ, Blackie RAS, Kingsnorth AN, Eremin O. Hidden dangers of sliced bread. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 288:1723–1724.

Sutton G. Hidden dangers of sliced bread (letter). Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 288:1995.

Rivron RP, Jones DRB. A hazard of modern life (letter). Lancet 1983; 2:334.

Jamison MH, Davis RWW, Maclennan I. A plastic bread-bag clip: cause of intermittent intestinal obstruction. Br J Clin Pract 1983; 37:402–403.

Guindi MM, Troster MM, Valley VM. Three cases of an unusual foreign body in small bowel. Gastrointest Radiol 1987; 12:240-242.

Ziter FM Jr. Intestinal perforation in adults due to ingested opaque foreign bodies. Am J Gastroenterol 1976; 68:382–385.

Schwartz JT, Graham DY. Toothpick perforation of the intestines. Ann Surg 1977; 185:64–66.

Gunn A. Intestinal perforation due to swallowed fish or meat bone. Lancet 1966; 1:125–128.

Ashby BS, Hunter-Craig ID. Foreign-body perforations of the gut. Br J Surg 1967; 54:382–384.

Ngan JHK, Fox PJ, Lai ECS et al. A prospective study on fish bone ingestion: experience of 358 patients. Ann Surg 1990; 211:459–462.

Danielson KS, Hunter TB. Barium capsules. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1985; 144:414.

Tandberg D. Glass in hand and foot: will x-ray film show it? JAMA 1982; 248:1872–1874.

Gordon D. Non-metallic foreign bodies (letter). Br J Radiol 1985; 58:574.

Fornage BD, Schemberg FL. Sonographic diagnosis of foreign bodies of the distal extremities. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986; 147:567–569.

Heller RM, Reichelderfer TE, Dorst JP, Oh KS. The problem with the replacement of copper pennies by aluminum pennies. Pediatrics 1974; 54:684–688.

Dorst JP, Reichelderfer TE, Sanders RC. Radiodensity of the proposed new penny. Pediatrics 1982; 69:224–225.

Eggli KD, Potter BM, Garcia V, Altman RP, Breckbill DL. Delayed diagnosis of esophageal perforation by aluminum foreign bodies. Pediatr Radiol 1986; 16:511–513.

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Smith PC, Swischuk LE, Fagan CV. Elusive and often unsuspected cause of stridor or pneumonia (esophageal foreign body). Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 1974; 122:80–89.

Humphry A, Holland WG. Unsuspected esophageal foreign bodies. J Can Assoc Radiol 1981; 32: 17–20.

Berger PE, Kuhn JP, Kuhns LR. Computed tomography and the occult tracheobroncheal foreign body. Radiology 1980; 134:133–135.

Beerman R, Nunez D Jr, Wetli CV. Radiographic evaluation of the cocaine smuggler. Gastrointest Radiol 1986; 11:351–354.

McCord GS, Clouse RE. Pill-induced esophageal strictures: clinical features and risk factors for development. Am J Med 1990; 88:512–518.

Hilfer RJ, Mandel A. Acute arsenic intoxication diagnosed by roentgenograms. N Engl J Med 1962; 266:663–664.

Goldfrank LR, Howland MA, Kirstein RH. Arsenic. In: Goldfrank LR, Flomebraum NE, Lewin NA, Weisman RS, Howland MA, Kulberg AG, eds. Toxicologic emergencies. East Norwalk, Conn: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1986; 609–618.

Spiegel SM, Hyams BB. Radiographic demonstration of a toxic agent. J Can Assoc Radiol 1984; 35:204–205.

Gray JR, Khalil A, Prior JC. Acute arsenic toxicity: an opaque poison. J Can Assoc Radiol 1989; 40: 226–227.

Staple TW, McAlister WH. Roentgenographic visualization of iron preparations in the gastrointestinal tract. Radiology 1964; 83:1051–1056.

Busch DB, Starling JR. Rectal foreign bodies: case reports and a comprehensive review of the world’s literature. Surgery 1986; 100:512–519.

Classen JN, Marten RE, Sabagal J. Iatrogenic lesions of the colon and rectum. South Med J 1975; 68:1417–1428.

Rosser C. Foreign bodies of the rectum. Texas State J Med 1931; 27:23–24.

Rebell FG. The problem of foreign bodies in the colon and rectum. Am J Surg 1948; 76:678–686.

Crass RA, Tranbaugh RF, Kudsk KA, Trundey DD. Colorectal foreign bodies and perforations. Am J Surg 1981; 142:85–88.

Kraker DA. Foreign bodies in the rectum and sigmoid. Am J Surg 1935; 29:449–450.

Fuller RC. Foreign bodies in the rectum and colon. Dis Colon Rectum 1965; 8:123–127.

Barone JE, Sohn N, Nelson TF. Perforations and foreign bodies of the rectum: report of 28 cases. Ann Surg 1976; 184:601–604.

Lebowitz RL, Vargas B. Stones in the urinary bladder in children and young adults. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1987; 148:491–495.

Zelegman BE, Feinberg LE, Johnson ED. A complication of cleansing enema: retained protective shield of the enema tip. Gastrointest Radiol 1986; 11:372–374.

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Richter RM, Littman L. Endoscopic extraction of an unusual colonic foreign body. Gastrointest Endosc 1975; 22:40–45.

Wolf L, Geracy K. Colonoscopic removal of balloons from the bowel. Gastrointest Endosc 1977; 24:41–44.

Eftaiha M, Hambrick E, Abcarian H. Principles of management of colorectal foreign bodies. Arch Surg 1977; 112:691–695.

Lau JTK, Ong GB. Broken and retained rectal thermometers in infants and young children. Aust Pediatr J 1981; 17:93–94.

Morales L, Rovida J, Mongrad M, Sancho MA, Bach A. Intraspinal migration of rectal foreign body. J Pediatr Surg 1983; 18:634 –635.

Buzzard AJ, Waxman BP. A long standing much travelled foreign body. Med J Aust 1979; 1:600.

deLacey G, Evans R, Sandin B. Penetrating injuries: how easy is it to see glass (and plastic) on radiographs? Br J Radiol 1985; 58:27–30.

Spouge AR, Weisbrod GL, Herman SJ, Chamber­lain DW. Wooden foreign body in the lung parenchyma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1990; 154:999–1001.

Bodne D, Quinn SF, Cochran CF. Imaging foreign glass and wooden bodies of the extremities with CT and MRI. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1988; 12:608–611.

Gooding AW, Hardiman T, Sumers M, Stress R, Graf P, Grunfeld C. Sonography of the hand and foot in foreign body detection. J Ultrasound Med 1987; 6:441–447.

Horton LK, Jacobson JA, Powell A, Fessell DP, Hayes CW. Sonography and radiography of soft-tissue foreign bodies. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001; 176:1155–1159.

Peterson JJ, Bancroft LW, Kransdorf MJ. Wooden foreign bodies: imaging appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002; 178:557–562.

Meyer JE, Kopans DB, Mueller PR. Preoperative localization of radiopaque foreign bodies. Radiology 1982; 144:179.

Desrentes M. Wizardry and radiography: a clinical case. Radiology 1990; 177:115–116.

Imray TJ, Hiramatsu Y. Radiographic manifestations of Japanese acupuncture. Radiology 1975; 115:625–626.

Schatz CJ, Fordham S. Acupuncture needles: a “new” foreign body in the ear. Am J Roentgenol 1976; 127:688–689.

Glauten A, Austin JHM. Permanent subcutaneous acupuncture needles: radiographic manifestations. J Can Assoc Radiol 1988; 398:54–56.

Saenz L, Lee H, Mottram M. Permanent acupuncture needles. JAMA 1978; 240:1482–1483.

Behrstock BB, Petrakis NL. A case report: permanent subcutaneous gold acupuncture needles. West J Med 1974; 121:140–142.

Naidich TP, Bartelt D, Wheeler PS, Stern WZ. Metallic mercury emboli. AJR Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 1973; 117:886–891.

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Wenzel V, Tuttle RJ, Zylak CJ. Intravenous self-administration of metallic mercury. Radiology 1980; 137:313–315.

Peterson N, Harvey-Smith W, Rohrmann CA Jr. Radiographic aspects of metallic mercury embolism. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1980; 135:1079– 1081.

Spizarny DL, Renzi P. Metallic mercury pulmonary emboli. J Can Assoc Radiol 1987; 38:60–61.

Wilson AJ. Gunshot injuries: what does a radiologist need to know? RadioGraphics 1999; 19: 1358–1368.

Hollerman JJ, Fackler ML. Bullet, pellets, and wound ballistics. In: Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby Year Book, 1994.

Sturdy JH, Baird RM, Gerein AN. Surgical sponges: a cause of granuloma and adhesion formation. Ann Surg 1967; 165:128 –134.

Rappaport W, Haynes K. The retained surgical sponge following intra-abdominal surgery. Arch Surg 1990; 125:405–407.

Shellock FG, ed. Magnetic resonance procedures: health effects and safety. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC, 2001.

Hunter TB. Magnetic pull from outer space (letter). AJR Am J Roentgenol 1996; 166:1498–1499.

Hunter TB and Hirai Gimber L. Indentification of retained surgical foreign objects: policy at a University Medical Center. J Am Coll Radiol 2010; 7(9):736-738.

Karlsson MK, Hasserius R, Gerdhem P, et al. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Acta Orthop 2005; 76: 620-627.

Taljanovic MS, Hunter TB, Freundlich IM. Misplaced devices in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis: part I. Semin Ultrasound CT MRI 2006; 27: 78-97.

Taljanovic MS, Hunter TB, Freundlich IM. Misplaced devices in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis: part II. Semin Ultrasound CT MRI 2006; 27: 98-110.

Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby, 1994

Dodd GD III, Budzik RF Jr. Identification of retained firearm projectiles on plain radiographs. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1990; 154:471-475.

Eshed I, Kushnir T, Shabshin N, Konen E. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks? Acta Radiol 2010; 51(2): 170-174.

Shellock FG, Karacozoff AM. Detection of implants and other objects using a ferromagnetic detection system: implications for patient screening before MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2013; 201:720-725.

Dula AN, Virostko J, Shellock FG. Assessment of MRI issues at 7 T for 28 implants and other objects. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 202: 401-405.

Guelfguat M, Kaplinskiy V, Reddy SH, DiPoce J. Clinical guidelines for imaging and reporting ingested foreign bodies. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 37-53.

Singh AK, Goralnick E, Velmahos G, Biddinger PD, Gates J, Sodickson A. Radiologic freatures of injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing at three hospitals. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 235-239.

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Webb WA. Management of foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinal tract: update. Gastrointest Endos 1995; 41: 39-51.

Ikenberry SO, Jue TL, Anderson MA, Appalaneni V, Banerjee S, et al. Management of ingested foreign bodies and food impactions. Gastrointest Endos 2011; 73 (6): 1085-1091.

Brown JC, Otjen JP, Drugas GT. Too attractive: the growing problem of magnet ingestions in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 2013: 29 (11): 1170-1174.

Pawa S, Khalifa AJ, Ehrinpreis MN, Schiffer CA, Siddiqui FA. Zinc toxicity from massive and prolonged coin ingestion in an adult. Am J Med Sci 2008; 335 (5): 430-433.

Dhawan SS, Ryder KM, Pritchard E. Massive penny injestion: the loot with local and systemic effects. J Emerg Med 2008; 35 (1): 33-37.

Poletti PA, Canel L, Becker CD, Wolff H, Elger B, et al. Screeing of illegal intracorporeal containers ("body packing"): is abdominal radiography sufficiently accurate? A comparative study with low-dose CT. Radiology 2012; 265 (3): 772-779.

Schmidt S, Hugli O, Rizzo E, Lepori D, Gudinchet F, Yersin B, Schnyder P, Meuwly JY. Detection of ingested cocaine-filled packets-diagnostic value of unenhanced CT. Eur J Radiol 2008; 67(1): 133-138.

Morris CC. Pediatric iron poisonings in the United States. South Med J 2000; 93 (4): 352-358.

Neumann H, Fry LC, Nagel A, Neurath ME. Wireless capsule endoscopy of the small intestine: a review and future directions. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2014; 30 (5): 463-471.

Mustafa BF, Samaan M, Langmead L, Khasraw M. Small bowel video capsule endoscopy: an overview. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013; 7 (4): 323-329.

Singeap AM, Trifan A, Cojocariu C, Sfarti C, Stanciu C. Outcomes after symptomatic capsule retention in suspected small bowel obstruction. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 23 (10): 886-890.

Rondonotti E, Soncini M, Girelli C, Ballardini G, Brunati S, et al. Small bowel capsule endoscopy in clinical practice: a multicenter 7-year survey. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 22 (11): 1380-1386.

Maddu KK, Mittal P, Day Arepali C, Shuaib W, Tewari A, Khosa F. Colorectal emergencies and related complications: a comprehensive imaging review-noninfectious and noninflammatory emergencies of the colon. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203: 1217-1229.

Yildiz SY, Kendirci M, Akbulut S, Ciftci A, Turgut HT, Hengirmen S. Colorectal emergencies associated with penetrating or retained foreign bodies. World J Emerg Surg 2013; 8: 25.

Lotan E, Portnoy O, Konen E, Simon D, Guranda L. The role of early postmortem CT in the evaluation of support line misplacement in patients with severe trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2015; 204: 3-7.

Roberts IS, Benamore RE, Benbow EW, Lee SH, Harris JN, Jackson A, Mallett S, Patankar C, Roobottom C, Traill ZC. Post-mortem imaging as an alternative to autopsy in diagnosis of adult deaths: a validation study. Lancet 2012; Jan 14; 379 (9811): 136-142.

Scholing M, Saltzherr TP, Fung Kon Jin PH, Ponsen KJ, Reitsma JB, Lameris JS, Goslings JC. The value of postmortem computed tomography as an alternative for autopsy in trauma victims: a systematic review. Eur Radiol 2009; 19(10): 2333-2341.

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Gharib SD, Berger DL, Choy G, Huck AE. Case 21-2015: a 37-year-old American man living in Vietnam, with fever and bacteremia. N Engl J Med 2015; 373 (2): 174-183.

Daffner RH. Reviewing CT scout images: observations of an expert witness. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2015; 205 (3): 589-591.

Walter WR, Amis ES Jr, Sprayregen S, Haramati LB. Intraoperative radiography for surgical miscounts. J Am Coll Radiol2015; 12: 824-829.

Porter KK, Woods RW, Bailey PD, Scott WW Jr, Johnson PT. Positive control radiographs for identifying a suspected retained surgical item. J Am Coll Radiol 2015; 12: 830-832.

Pugmire BS, Lim R, Avery LL. Review of ingested and aspirated foreign bodies in children and their clinical significance for radiologists. RadioGraphics 2015; 35 (5): 1528-1538.

Singh AK, Ditkofsky NG, York JD, Abujudeh HH, Avery LA, Brunner JF, Sodickson AD, Lev MH. Blast injuries: from improvised explosive device blasts to the Boston Marathon bombing. RadioGraphics 2016; 36: 295-307.

Kellermann AL, Peleg K. Lessons from Boston, N Engl J Med 2013; 368 (21): 1956-1957.

Garner J, Brett SJ. Mechanisms of injury by explosive devices. Anesthesiol Clin 2007; 25 (1): 147-160.

Champion HR, Holcomb JB, Young LA. Injuries from explosions: physics, biophysics, pathology, and required research focus. J Trauma 2009; 66 (5): 1468-1477; discussion 1477.

Proud WG. The physical basis of explosion and blast injury process. JR Army Med Corps. 2013; Mar; 159 Suppl 1: i4-9.

Horrocks CL. Blast injuries: biophysics, pathophysiology and management principles. JR Army Med Corps. 2001; 147 (1): 28-40.

Laberke PJ, Blum S, Waelti S, Fornaro J, Hausmann R, Alkadhi H, Leschka S. Systematic evaluation of radiation dose reduction in CT studies of body packers: accuracy down to submillisievert levels. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2016; 206: 740-746.

Gimber LH, Melville DM, Klauser AS, Witte RS, Arif-Tiwari H, Taljanovic MS. Artifacts at musculoskeletal US: resident and fellow education feature. RadioGraphics 2016; 36 (2): 479-480.

Hunter TB, Taljanovic MS. Foreign bodies. RadioGraphics 2003; 23:731-757. Permission granted for use of images in this article by Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Hunter TB, Yoshino MT, Dzioba RB, Light RA, Berger WG. Medical devices of the head, neck, and spine. RadioGraphics 2004; 24: 257-285. Permission granted for use of images in this article by Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Hunter TB, Taljanovic MS, Tsau PH, Berger WG, Standen JR. Medical devices of the chest. RadioGraphics 2004; 24: 1725-1746. Permission granted for use of images in this article by Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Yoshino MT. Medical devices of the head and neck. In: Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994; 348 –385.

Senar AC, Dinu LE, Artigas JM, Larrosa R, Navarro Y, Angulo E. Foreign bodies on lateral neck radiographs in adults: imaging findings and common pitfalls. RadioGraphics 2017; 37: 323-345.


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Permission for use of images published in Hunter TB, Bragg DG, eds. Radiologic guide to medical devices and foreign bodies. St Louis, Mo: Mosby–Year Book, 1994 is granted by Tim B Hunter, MD copyright owner.


Useful Links

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Medical Device Manufacturers

Foreign bodies of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract in children

MRI Questions

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Tim Hunter

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